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ENPOR - A service to understand energy vulnerable households and how to support them
A service to understand energy vulnerable households and how to support them.
Spring Edition 2021
ENPOR Project Policies Tackle Energy Poverty in Private Rented Homes

Energy vulnerability (poverty) is a critical factor to consider within a fair energy transition. It must be addressed with adequate policies.The ENPOR Project increases the capacity of the decision makers for understanding and mitigating its effects by designing and implementing ten policies. ENPOR will support the adaption and implementation of ten policies in 7 Member States tailored to the specific needs of the private rented sector and will integrate them into broader policy objectives.


The project selected 10 policies based on their significant contribution to the alleviation of energy poverty until 2030 and their integration into the draft National Energy and Climate Plans. They are selected based on urban location, governance arrangements, predominant mode of financing, principal energy supply mode, energy efficiency of the housing stock, and level of political participation. They will be implemented and assessed in a way that cross-comparisons can be made, and useful lessons can be drawn for their replication across the EU. This process will be guided by the so called REACT Groups. These groups consist of all actors touched by energy poverty in various EU countries. They ensure that the policies are enhanced in a way that they respond to the problems in place. These groups enure that the analysis and improvement suggestions are rooted in actual needs of the sector. Following the REACT Group suggestions, the improvement of each policy measure will take the form of replication suggestions as Policy fiches. 


Are you interested to learn more about the policies and participate at our events? Would you like to be involved in the REACT activities? Visit our homepage to get in touch with your national contact!

First Report on Energy Poverty in the Private Rented Sector in Europe

Dr. Stefan Bouzarovski and Manon Burbidge (The University of Manchester) found that fuel/energy poverty and vulnerability is increasing in the European private rented sector. Their report and analysis is the first scientific publication investigating energy poverty in the private rented sector 

According to the findings, the size of the PRS has increased in many traditionally home-owning societies for a variety of reasons, with a wider cross-section of society remaining longer in the rented sector. The report highlights specific challenges affecting the European private rented sector, including an eye-opening historical overview, from 1970 to the present day, highlighting the increasing shift from homeownership and social renting to the PRS for a widening section of society. The report sheds light on the varieties of private renting, tenant-landlord relationships, and provides case studies from multiple European countries on the impact of financialization and deregulation. Lastly, it examines experiences of inequality in the sector, particularly noting the experiences of young people and students.



The authors find that the affordability of housing in the sector for low-income renters is worsening. Across the EU, more than 1 in 10 people on average are spending more than 40% of their income on housing costs, including energy, rent and other utilities. Households in the PRS struggle with energy-related problems to a much greater degree than the general population. 


The report assesses the barriers and drivers for increasing energy efficiency in privately rented homes, where the authors find that improving the efficiency of the PRS is not just a question of technical efficiency; it also involves complex social, economic and political challenges. There is also a synthesis of the best practices, policies and solutions which are being carried out around the world to implement energy efficiency improvements in the PRS, culminating in a conceptual framework and recommendations. The authors stress that literature coverage is geographically uneven, concentrated in Western Europe, and conclude by highlighting the multiple pathways for energy poverty alleviation in the PRS, including regulatory, financial, and social measures and argue in favour of the need for representation of different sector stakeholders involved in these pathways.

Download the Report here
Expert Talk - Energy Poverty in the Private Rented Sector

The Launch Event of ENPOR's Report on Energy Poverty in the Private Rented Sector took place place via  ZOOM, 11:00 CET on the 24th of February 2021. This event marked the kick-start of the ENPOR Project's series of activities around Europe, exploring ways to alleviate energy poverty in the private rented sector.

During the event, Marine Cornelis, EU Climate Pact Ambassador discussed with Dr. Stefan Bouzarovski and Manon Burbidge latest findings in the soon to be released Report and Analysis. The challenges and potential solutions will be discussed in Marine's next Podcast episode. 

Learning by Doing: What the Estonian retrofitting grant teaches us about energy vulnerability

by Marek Muiste, Tartu Regional Energy Agency


Let’s start with a question. How can we improve the quality of housing in a country with rapidly aging post-communist era building stock in a community with the financial capacity well below the EU average?  


We should take into consideration that this country has an energy sector that relies heavily on carbon-based energy production and sustains one of Europe’s most energy-hungry economy in the background. Are we missing something? Yes, one more thing - we should also mention a cheap influx of European loan money, fresh from post-2008 printing press in Brussels and Frankfurt. Now the scene is set, and we can introduce our topic for today - Estonian national retrofitting grant, kick-started in 2010 and currently in its third iteration.  


It is not an energy poverty measure, at least not according to the current the administration.  Indirectly it has been one the most influential tools a country has used for mitigating the long-term effects of energy poverty in Estonia. Analysing, learning from and improving the energy poverty dimension of the national retrofitting grant is the focus of ENPOR project in Estonia. 

Community News
Let's create a community!

Energy poverty in the private rented sector is just aspect of energy vulnerability in Europe. We give space to sister projects in our newsletters. Together we are stronger.

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Partner News and Events
Social Rental Agencies's Role in Tackling Energy Poverty in the PRS

By Maria Figueira, UIPI 

Many countries in Europe face high pressure on their social housing stock, as the demand keeps increasing. An alternative to social housing can be the Private Rented Sector (PRS), as it can be a way to provide affordable housing and to tackle energy poverty, through initiatives like Social Rental Agencies (SRA).


SRAs are non-profit housing organisations devoted to providing housing solutions for low-income tenants and homeless people. They act as key intermediaries between property owners and people needing housing, by offering a structural answer for the current housing crisis. Thus, they could be considered as a model for attending housing needs of the most vulnerable in the PRS, where other initiatives, such as rent control or massive tax exemptions, have shown not to work as well.

The ENGAGER Newsflash

The ENGAGER Energy Rights Forum on the topic ‘Would a Right to Energy end Energy Poverty?’ forum takeS place in week 15 -19 March. It consists of daily sessions to be held in the afternoon of each weekday, each dedicated to a specific topic.


The ENGAGER Training School 2 on ‘Mainstreaming innovative energy poverty metrics’ will be held in five different locations across Europe (plus online) from the 26th to the 30th of April. Applications are welcome from early career researchers, with civil society workers and practitioners are also encouraged to apply. Selected participants will receive a stipend to cover travel and accommodation costs. Because of the pandemic it will not be as fun the 2019 Barcelona ENGAGER training school, but hopefully very much worth it.  


ENGAGER right to energy toolkit – a policy document that attempts to answer the following key questions: Why a right to energy? What is the right to energy? Who has a right to energy? How to put it into practice? If you’re interested in joining the working group, please in get in touch to sign up: anamari.majdandzic (at)      


The ENGAGER network is an EU-funded COST Action promoting collaboration on energy poverty research and practice running from 2017 to 2022. It organises thematic/regional events and training schools, offers paid visiting research fellowships, funds open access publications and many more.

Italian Financial Schemes and Energy Efficiency

via Lorenza Daroda, ENEA

Italy has been shaken several times by devastating earthquakes and seismic activity in the recent decade. Retrofitting Italian homes to lower the destruction potential and combine it with energy upgrade is one of the main goals of the new portal that is now available via the homepage of ENEA - the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development. This service supports compiling and transfering the declarations and documents required to receive the new tax deduction instrument called SUPERBONUS 110%. 


The Superbonus is a 110% tax credit of the expenditure established to improve a home’s energy efficiency and lower its seismic risk. The expenses have to be incurred between July 1, 2020 and December 31, 2021 and the renovation must show an improvement of at least two energy classes to obtain the tax bonus. The Portal serves as the platform to create and register all the mandatory declarations that have to be provided at beginning and at end of requalification works to receive the foreseen tax deductions. Through it, ENEA also provides all the technical guidelines and necessary information for the citizens on the procedures required to benefit from the Superbonus.

News and Resources Around Europe
30 milllion people face energy poverty in Europe: The EU needs a political strategy to end this – Policy paper

By Jacques Delors Energy Centre, Paris 

This policy paper suggests that the EU and its Member States should embrace a political strategy that makes the objective of lifting all Europeans from energy poverty a key com-ponent of the European Green Deal. By focusing first on providing support to energy-poor European families, this paper argues that EU policy makers can adopt tangible decision.

Research meets policy: Confronting Energy Poverty in Europe: A Research and Policy Agenda

This paper analyses existing policy efforts to address energy poverty at the governance scale of the European Union its Member States. The recent expansion of energy poverty policies at the EU level, fuelled by the regulatory provisions of the Clean Energy for all Europeans Package, as well as the establishment of an EU Energy Poverty Observatory is presented. It shows the extensive scientific body of work that has recently been published on the topic, as well as the multiple strategies and measures to address energy poverty that have been formulated across the EU.

Energy Poverty Resources

The second phase of the EU Energy Poverty Observatory is in the making. In the meantime read the resources of: 

    • Policies to fight energy poverty
    • Resources of the Covenant of Mayors Europe on Alleviating energy poverty in Europe
    • EU Just Transition Platform

France: 3,5 million people facing problems to pay their energy bills

The French National Energy Poverty Observatory (ONPE) published the results of its 2020 dashboard which reveals that 3.5 million energy poor households experienced difficulties in paying their energy bills in France in 2019. As every year since its creation in 2011, the ONPE and its 29 partners are working to quantify and qualify the extent of the problem, ensure the monitoring and measurement of existing support systems, report the difficulties of households and identify actions to fight effectively against energy vulnerability.

Synthesis Report from the Oxford University Programme on Integrating Renewable Energy

Key findings from the Oxford University’s 5 year Programme on Integrating Renewable Energy have been brought together in a Synthesis Report. The programme adopted a whole systems approach to explore challenges and barriers facing the further integration of renewable energy and identified potential solutions for the energy system across technical, social, economic, and governance issues.  The Report draws together key findings across this multidisciplinary programme, showcasing the work and research undertaken, and giving links to where more information and resources can be found.


To bundle findings and outcomes of projects dealing with energy vulnerability to support policies related to fair energy transition, we seek to publish interesting news and articles. We welcome articles and news from other projects and inititiatives, as well as by researchers or policy initiatives interested in distributing their results  in an easy-to-understand language.

Next Deadline for Articles: 10th of July.

Formats: News, Events, Calls, Articles

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This Newsletter reflects only the author’s view and CINEA is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. ENPOR has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 889385.

Energy vulnerability is a critical factor for fair energy transition and requires addressing with the proper policy.

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ENPOR The project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 889385.